Tuesday, 12 March 2013


In politics, an independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties. Sometimes they hold a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do not feel that any major party addresses. 

Other independent politicians may be associated with a political party, be former members of it, or have views that align with it, but choose not to stand under its label. Others may belong to or support a political party but believe they should not formally represent it and thus be subject to its policies. Some independents choose to form an alliance rather than a party and have formally registered their "independents" group. In some countries political parties are illegal and all candidates effectively stand as independents. Finally, some independent candidates may form a political party for the purposes of running for public office.

Thursday, 10 May 2012


Astrantia is a genus of herbaceous plants in the family Apiaceae, endemic to Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and the Caucasus.The Genus name comes from the Greek word for star in reference to the star-like quality of the flower heads. There are 8 or 9 species, which have aromatic roots, palmate leaves, and decorative flowers. They are commonly known as great masterwort, which may be confused with masterwort, Peucedanum ostruthium.

Friday, 4 November 2011

The Independent Left

The Independent Left (French: Gauche ind├ępendante, GI) was a French parliamentary group in the Chamber of Deputies of France during the French Third Republic between 1932 and 1940. The Independent Left united small centre-left parties.

The following parties sat in the Independent Left group.

League of the Young Republic (LJR)
Radical-Socialist Party Camille Pelletan (PRS-CP)
Social-National Party (PSN)
Party of Proletarian Unity (PUP)
Frontist Party (PF)
former members of the Republican-Socialist Party who did not join the Socialist Republican Union (USR